Georgia's construction industry consumes a large amount of concrete mixes for different purposes. A major component of concrete mixtures is the building sand. In Georgia mostly used natural river sand.
Existing or nevly developed sand pits have a negative impact on the river basins. In this case, often, the quality of natural sand is poor due to non-optimal grains composition, presence of clay and dust particles, moisture, grain shape, etc.
Consumption of sands is usually about 47% of the consumed gravel. Output of natural sand from sand-gravel aggregate is 10-12%; crushing screenings (particle size is 0.16-5.00 mm) is 15-18%. On this basis, the total yield of river sand pits does not exceed 30% of the produced gravel. Thus the river sand deficiency is about 17%.
There are two way for decreasing the stock-out of construction sands: increase production of natural river sand; begin producing of artificial one. Row materials for the production of artificial sand may be various rocks (mainly granite, basalt, rhyolite, etc.) and waste of the crushing plants (not broken river ballast fraction 3-6 mm).
At the first stage of production of the artificial sand will be used waste of crushing plants. It is about 1.5 million ton of waste in the quarries near Tbilisi (within 60 km from Tbilisi).
The waste of these enterprises takes up too much space. At the same time, the land charge is high and the crushing plants have a large stake to get rid of this waste. Thus the cost of one ton of waste does not exceed 2.0 USD (EXW).
In the future, along with the processing of waste will be used various rocks (quartz sandstone, the outputs of which are known in the northern part of Tbilisi). As the result we will receive: washed sand with preset parameters (Particle Size Analyses Results, Concrete Recipes and Concrete Cube Tests Report see in this file - ); significantly reduce of trancport costs and, consequently, high quality and low price of the sand.
Preliminary negotiates with the leadership of one of the companies in the Marneuli Region were conduct. Quantity of the waste (uncrushed gravel) is 60 thousand cubic meters; preliminary price is 2.4 USD/cub.m, or about 1.7 USD/ton.
Calculations of the cost of artificial sand production from uncrushed gravel and other economic indicators are presented in the separately file
Price of the unwashed yellow quartz-feldspar sand from Sachkhere Region on the tbilisi railway station territory is about 35 USD/cub.m (23 USD/ton).
It should be noted that at present none of the Georgian enterprises does not produce artificial sand, does not have the appropriate equipment and has no plans to do so in the near future.